Some of the adverb clauses that show us Cause and Effect like: 'because, now that and since"
Are there any more of these?
What is the rule for using them?
For which of them we need to use comma in the sentence when we use it?
There are actually many adverbs and non-adverbs that show cause and effect!
These are also known as adverbs of reason (yes, there are many adverbs of.. in the theme of adverbs) that show motive or **explanation for an action done.
Aside from the ones that you have given in your question, here are some others!
I thought that Katie needed a bit of sun since she has not seen it for so long, hence I drew back the curtains.
(something happened) Sarah was thus extremely upset and flew into a rage.
There are also adverbs (non adverbs of reason) that connect clauses and sentences that can also be used as an adverb of reason depending on how we use them. A good example is;
When Sarah heard this, she flew into an immense rage and subsequently fired the nanny.
There are also expletives that introduce reason!
It being his first year of professional basketball, everyone had high expectations.
There being insufficient evidence of the alleged murder, the arrest warrant for Mr. Schneider was withdrawn.
When writing adverbs of reason at the head of a sentence, either as an opening for a paragraph or after a full-stop, one should always utilise a comma after the adverb.
Therefore, he.... or Hence, the council
It is unwise to start a sentence with because in formal writing, especially when answering a question. If, for some reason you need to start a sentence with the same meaning, I would advise you to use Due to rather than Because of. In the middle of a sentence, because needs no commas.
Clauses like Now that and Due to need no commas at the start of a sentence.
There are simple too many to explain whether or not they need commas. You should choose a few clauses that you are unsure of and start a new question so that a detailed and focused answer can be dispensed.