How the bandwagon effect occurs is demonstrated by the history of measurements of the speed of light. Because this speed is the basis of the theory of relativity, it’s one of the most frequently and carefully measured quantities in science. As far as we know, the speed hasn’t changed over time. However, from 1870 to 1900, all the experiments found speeds that were too high. Then, from 1900 to 1950, the opposite happened ― all the experiments found speeds that were too low! This kind of error, where results are always on one side of the real value, is called “bias.” It probably happened because over time, experimenters subconsciously adjusted their results to match what they expected to find. If a result fit what they expected, they kept it. If a result didn’t fit, they threw it out. They weren’t being intentionally dishonest, just influenced by the conventional wisdom. The pattern only changed when someone had the courage to report what was actually measured instead of what was expected.

bias example 1. the light was measured too high

bias example 2. the light was measured too low

I think that bias example 1,2 are 'results' and the results are biases, not real value. So I want to know why the author wrote that phrase.enter link description here

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    What don't you understand? For some reason, apparently researchers from 1870 to 1900 "expected" the speed of light to be higher than it really is - and because of this, they distorted their test results to give incorrectly high results. But from 1900 to 1950 they expected the value to be lower, so they distorted their results in the opposite direction. I've no idea if those claims about "researcher bias" are actually true in respect of lightspeed, but the light was measured too high isn't quite right (should be the speed of light was measured [to be] too high.. Sep 22, 2021 at 16:04
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    ...but no - the "results" are not the "biases". The results reflect the biases (where biases is plural because there are two different biases leading to two different types of systemic measurement error - "too high" and "too low"). Sep 22, 2021 at 16:07
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    I get to fully understand it! It's important that The results reflect the biases. :) thank you so much your precious comments! have a good day my teacher FumbleFingers. Sep 23, 2021 at 2:23

1 Answer 1


It means in a certain time period, everyone who attempted to calculate the speed of light was skewing their results towards the answer they wanted to get because it fit what everyone else was getting. This "skewing" is called a "bias". calculations of the speed of light before and after 1900

  • I'm so touched about your endeavor to make me understand... I appreciate your comment. have a good day my teacher gotube :) Sep 23, 2021 at 2:25

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