"Then again, it didn't matter, did it?"
What's the meaning of "then again" here?
Is it the same as "thinking better"?
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"Then again" is used to introduce an afterthought or second thought to a previous statement. Depending on the tone of the speaker, it can mean "thinking better of it..." or "on the other hand." The latter usage elicits a spoken emphasis on the verb (especially a modal).
I didn't want Larry to see what happened... then again I figured as a doctor, maybe he could help me. (= thinking better of it)
I don't want Larry to see what happened. Then again he is a doctor. (=on the other hand)
"Then again" would only be synonymous with "thinking better [of...]" when the prior thought was negative. "On the other hand" (or "then again") could be used in either circumstance.
[Something negative]; thinking better of it, [something positive].
[Something positive or negative]; on the other hand, [something opposite].
In both cases, the second statement opposes the first, but the inclusion of "better" implies a positive meaning to the second statement.