I'm writing a story and I want to use the line
to the place I was once separated, I will return.
Now my question is, do I have to use "separated from" or can I simply keep it as "separated."
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You need the "from"; without it, you might be implying that you yourself were broken into pieces!
The grammar rules are: "Separate", as a standalone verb, speaks of one united thing being divided. This is true whether it's transitive ("I separated the bread into slices") or intransitive ("The cell separated, forming two new cells"). The verb "separate" can also be used as you're doing here, to talk about segregating or parting two or more things that are already distinct; this use is a prepositional verb and requires "from": "I separated the pebbles from the beans." "The car's engine has been separated from the frame."
By the way, I hope you intend a poetic and unusual word order; a normal syntax might be "I will return to the place I was once separated from." The inverted syntax is perfectly acceptable under poetic license, as long as you want a lofty or poetic tone.
It is really, really, like dude, REALLY tricky to make this sound natural and native.
The trouble is this:
In English, it's relatively common to "adopt" an "archaic, formal" poise.
It sits in a place between plain humor, and a certain soul-felt seriousness.
You sometimes do it to emphasize the importance, quality, of what you're saying; other times more for humor.
In the phrase in question, you have definitely done that.
You're trying to be "a native English speaker, adopting a more formal, traditional, " ' Shakespearean ' " tone ...
Maybe something like:
To the place from which I was separated, I will one day return.
or what about
I have been separated from a place. But I tell you this, one day I will return to that place.
I'll return one day, to that place, they took me from.
Just one huge problem you face: many phrases in English are incredibly, like spectacularly, overloaded with, let's say, social-historical meaning.
It's utterly impossible in English to utter or write "Get Back" without invoking the Beatles song. And you can't utter or write "I will return" without invoking the McArthur thing (google if necessary). Which would seem to have absolutely no stylistic connection to your writing piece, so, it's tricky.
This is a really, really difficult issue in English. No native contemporary writer would ever, ever, type "I will return" without considering the military/socio-historic milieu. It's tough!