No, they're not interchangeable. "Quite a few" is an idiom meaning "many". "Quite some" is just not a combination of words that English-speakers use.
In general, "quite" can mean "very". Like you can say, "It is quite dark out" or "Bob is quite talented". "Quite some" doesn't make sense. "Very some"? What does that mean?
You can also say "quite an X" to indicate more of whatever X normally means, or a particularly good or bad example of X. Like if you say, "Bob is a plumber", that tells us nothing about his skill level. He could be a good plumber or a bad plumber. But if you say, "Bob is quite a plumber", that means he is a very good plumber. Similarly, "That was quite an accident" means it was a very bad accident. Etc.
"Quite a few" is, as I said, an idiom meaning "many". Like most idioms, the meaning doesn't follow entirely from analyzing each of the words that make it up. "Few" usually means a small number, so you might think "quite a few" would mean a very small number, but in fact it means the opposite. I suppose if you think of it as meaning, a small number is a few, but quite a few means a large number, it might make literal sense to you.