Is it okay to ask
"Why do you always carry with you your laptop or something else…?"
Or is there a more common way of saying that?
Your title is more natural than the quote in the body of your question.
It is more idiomatic to say "carry [object] with you" than to say "carry with you [object]." The second version is not, strictly speaking, incorrect, but no one talks like that. The place I could see that arrangement working is in a poem or song, either to make the meter work out properly or to put special emphasis on the object. In ordinary usage you would have to verbally stress the object in order to emphasize it, instead of putting it at the end of the phrase.
So you can ask someone
Why do you always carry your laptop with you?
But even that is still a little awkward. To my ear, the sentence sounds more idiomatic if you insert the adverb around after the object:
Why do you always carry your laptop around with you?
Some other verbs you can use besides carry are: cart, drag, lug, tow, haul. Some of these would sound more or less natural depending on what the object is; for example, "tow" is most often used in relation to something with wheels. These verbs all but require "around."
If you do not want to use "around" you can use the verbs bring or take:
Why do you always bring [take] your laptop with you?
This has the connotation of there being a single specific place that you always bring your laptop, unlike "carry around" which connotes the continuous practice of bringing your laptop everywhere you go. "Bring" is used when the question is asked when you have arrived at the location, and "take" is used when the question is asked as you are leaving to go to the location.