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Are the following sentences both okay? Or should "being" be inserted?

After scolded by her teacher, she ran crying all the way home.

When scolded by her teacher, she ran crying all the way home.

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    Both sentences could have [she was] inserted before the verb. For some reason I can't explain, when works without the [she was] but after doesn't. Being can be used instead with after. Nov 20, 2021 at 9:53
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    The first version is syntactically invalid (it requires a verb: After being scolded, she did something). Note that there's also the stylised literary usage with just the past participle used "adjectivally": Scolded by her teacher, she ran home. Nov 20, 2021 at 15:32

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"After" and "when" appear to be subordinating conjunctions. The second sentence is grammatically correct if we assume that the subordinate clause's subject and simple predicate have been elided: "When [[she was]] scolded by her teacher, ...". (I use double brackets to indicate that text is optional.) However, we can't elide those elements with "after", so you need to include them: "After she was scolded by her teacher, ...".

We could also include the present participle "being", as you suggest: "When [[she was]] being scolded by her teacher, ..." "After she was being scolded by her teacher, ..."

Note that "after" can also be a preposition. Thus, we could write, "After being scolded by her teacher, ...". In this case, "being" is a gerund and functions as the object of the preposition "after".

There are still some issues with verb tenses, the progressive aspect, etc., so although the above sentences are grammatical, not all of them express the author's meaning very well. In order to make the order of events clear, I'd recommend one of the following (though there are also other possibilities):

After being scolded by her teacher, ...

After she was scolded by her teacher, ...

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