Today, when reading Lannquist,2020, p.7, I saw the second hyphen "-" but I do not understand what the author wants to imply.

“smart‑contract”‑driven wholesale CBDC applications
(e.g. “atomic swaps and securities transactions”).

So, in this case, does the second hyphen mean that driven wholesale CBDC applications are an alternative name of "smart-contract"?

  • 1
    There are two hyphens in your quote. Do you mean the second?
    – gotube
    Nov 21, 2021 at 5:50
  • yes, the second one Nov 21, 2021 at 9:39
  • "smart-contract" is one word. A rather pretentious word, that makes claims to its quality by its very structure. Almost as bad as naming myself "brilliant-scientist goodleader PcMan", when I am neither brilliant nor a leader.
    – PcMan
    Nov 22, 2021 at 7:35

1 Answer 1


The author is saying that the wholesale CDBC applications are driven by smart-contracts -- implying that the smart-contracts are integral to the working of these applications. The hyphen connects the words to show that they are part of the same concept or thing.

  • The hyphen between "smart-contract" and "driven" is not extraneous at all. Replace "smart contract" with any other single-word term and you see that the hyphen is quite necessary (as I demonstrated there). The hyphen between "smart" and "contract" is more questionable but I tend to use it.
    – randomhead
    Nov 22, 2021 at 4:16
  • 1
    @randomhead On further reflection you are correct since the phrasal adjective (driven) proceeds the noun (wholesale CDBC applications). I've edited my answer accordingly. It just looks really weird given that "smart-contracts" is surrounded by quotes.
    – Mordred
    Nov 22, 2021 at 6:30
  • @Mordred The problem is that "smart-contract" is used as a single word. It is not merely a "smart contract", although it is almost certainly derived from that.
    – PcMan
    Nov 22, 2021 at 6:42
  • @PcMan Right, but that doesn't explain why it's quoted in that context. smart-contract-driven would seem to make more sense.
    – Mordred
    Nov 22, 2021 at 7:08
  • @Mordred Because "smart-contract-driven" can easily be misinterpreted as "smart contract-driven" which has a different meaning.
    – PcMan
    Nov 22, 2021 at 7:24

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