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Samples:

  1. By intently contemplating on the beauty and qualities of his beloved, his sadness dissipated.
  2. By chanting Lord’s names, the ultimate attainment is had.
  3. By seeing this mountain, His memory of Govardhana hill was aroused.
  4. By remembering him, it is seen that he is endowed with all the good qualitites.
  5. By remembering his beauty, the minds of everyone are eternally attracted to him.
  6. By reciting these names, all obstacles are vanquished.

It seems to me that ‘By V-ing’ here are participial phrases, and due to the fact that the subject in the main clause is not related to the verb in the participial phrase, we get dangling participles.

Please confirm this, or correct me in this regard.

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By intently contemplating on the beauty and qualities of his beloved, his sadness dissipated.

By chanting Lord’s names, the ultimate attainment is had.

By seeing this mountain, His memory of Govardhana hill was aroused.

By remembering him, it is seen that he is endowed with all the good qualitites.

By remembering his beauty, the minds of everyone are eternally attracted to him.

By reciting these names, all obstacles are vanquished.

Yes, there are problems of dangling modifiers. We could call that dangling gerund as the v+ing terms in these examples are gerunds rather than participles; they are objects of the proposition by.

Another example of a dangling gerund problem is shown below, and more details can be found here

After roasting for three hours, we turned the oven off.

In this sentence, the modifier after roasting for three hours is positioned next to we, meaning that "we" have been "roasting for three hours."

Possible ways to rephrase the examples are shown below:

By intently contemplating on the beauty and qualities of his beloved, he eased/dissipated his sadness.

By chanting Lord’s names, one achieves the ultimate attainment.

By seeing this mountain, he aroused his memory of Govardhana hill.

By remembering him, one sees that he is endowed with all the good qualitites.

By remembering his beauty, everyone has his/her mind eternally attracted to him.

By reciting these names, one vanquishes all obstacles.

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  • Makes sense, thank you. I suspected that it is not a participle due to the preposition. And I supposed that the preposition can change the applicability of the dangling modifier defect, but you confirmed that it is still a dangling modifier.
    – AKd
    Dec 13, 2021 at 4:57
  • Is it possible to fix the dangling modifier by replacing "by" with "by means of" or similar expressions? Especially in the passive voice cases: "By means of chanting Lord’s names, the ultimate attainment is had", "On the strength of reciting these names, all obstacles are vanquished."
    – AKd
    Mar 28, 2022 at 4:27
  • 1
    @Akd, your proposed changes would not help. Mar 28, 2022 at 12:42

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