Do industrial researchers have souls?

In his work The Scientific Life: a Moral History of a Late Modern Vocation, historian and sociologist of science Steven Shapin questions two widely accepted ideas. The first is that modern scientific research, as presented by Max Weber and Robert K. Merton, is a collective enterprise based on standards of interaction between researchers, exempt from any moral concern and in which individuals do not count. The second is that that deep-seated differences exist between research undertaken in the academic environment and research carried out in business enterprises which are motivated by the search for profit.

To tell the truth, I've read this sentence several times but I 'got lost', how can I understand what it means? why "that that"?

  • 2
    It appears to be an error. There should only be one "that."
    – randomhead
    Dec 30 '21 at 6:29
  • I'd read it as: first that is a conjunction and the second a determiner (demonstrative pronoun). Dec 30 '21 at 8:18
  • @LucianSava I thought about that, but then how are you parsing the phrase that comes after that that? The subject seems to be deep-seated differences, which would require those, not that.
    – stangdon
    Dec 30 '21 at 14:32
  • You're right indeed, @stangdon, you can't say that exist. Dec 30 '21 at 15:18
  • I’m closing this question because it's based on a typo, and a helpful answer is unlikely
    – gotube
    Dec 31 '21 at 9:42

This is a typo. There is no way to read it so that it makes sense with "that that".

Note that "that that" is not always a mistake; in archaic English, it was possible to use it as a synonym of "that which" (which is also a little archaic now):

A man might abandon that that he has sought for all his life, take up his roots, and choose another path.

Also see stangdon's example in the comments for another way, quite common in all levels of speech, that two "thats" might end up adjacent.

  • I agree that this is a typo, but why do you say "in archaic English"? It's still possible to use "that that", for example, "It wasn't that a man came in, it was that that man came in."
    – stangdon
    Dec 30 '21 at 14:30
  • @stangdon That's a second way it might arise, which I agree isn't archaic. I'll add it. Dec 30 '21 at 15:01

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