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I've just read this sentence in a medic book: "How do we know when someone is suffering from concussion?" Would it be incorrect if I used the Present Simple form? For example, "...when someone suffers from concussion?"

Is there any rule that says that we should use Present Continuous in these types of sentences?

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The two sentences have different meanings, and the simple present version would be incorrect in this context.

Present continuous generally means something that is currently true, so if you have a patient and they are suffering from a concussion, it means right now. So the question, "How do we know when someone is suffering from concussion?" means, "How do we identify that a patient is currently suffering from concussion?". The answer to this question is a list of symptoms that present when a person is currently suffering from a concussion.

Simple present generally means something that happens regularly, from time to time, and not necessarily now, so if you have a patient and they suffer from concussion, it means from time to time. So the question, "How do we know when someone suffers from concussion?" means, "How do we identify that a patient regularly suffers concussions?". The answer to this question is a list of symptoms of people who regularly suffer concussions.

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No, it would not be incorrect

when someone suffers from concussion

you may use both cases, either the verb suffer, like above or the gerund is suffering like in the article

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    In the original sentence, "suffering", is not a gerund but the present participle of the verb "suffer" in the present continous form. He/she/it is suffering. If the verb is the subject of the sentence the personal pronoun is not needed, e.g "The suffering of losing one's child [it] never leaves."
    – Mari-Lou A
    Commented Dec 31, 2021 at 10:01

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