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  • I'd be happy to see Jim as manager.
  • That might be a little confusing because they know me as manager.
  • We will work with him on the issue, in his capacity as manager of the company.
  • But as manager, you can hire your own staff.

Why isn't any article added after "as" and before the noun? in comparison with below examples:

  • As a police officer, violence is part of my everyday life.
  • I'm not here as a friend.

Is there any specific grammar rule for such phrases?

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This may or may not be the precise rule, but I notice that in all of the top examples with no article, and in some more I've thought up, the article "the" could be used without changing the meaning:

  • I'd be happy to see Jim as the manager.
  • That might be a little confusing because they know me as the manager.
  • With this class, I think Sue would do better as (the) teacher than as (the) teacher's assistant.

In your two cases where zero article is clearly wrong, "the" would also be wrong:

  • As the police officer, violence is part of my everyday life.
  • I'm not here as the friend.
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    It is an oddity of as that when it precedes an office or role, it does not need an article: as president, as executor, as commander in chief. It's not clear to me what the limits of this construction are: it usually requires that the role is unique, at least in the context. So if you're talking about somebody who is a teacher, you can't normally say as teacher; but if you're talking about the relationship between the teacher and their pupil or pupils you then could say as teacher, meaning "as the one who is the teacher in this relationship".
    – Colin Fine
    Jan 4, 2022 at 23:53

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