The present perfect tense has many different functions, which means it's possible for it to cause ambiguity. This is one of those cases.
All functions of the present perfect somehow relate a past event to the present time, and often in an indirect way.
The two possible functions in this context are:
- describe a finished event in the past with present result
- describe an event that began in the past and continues into the present
With function 1, it indicates the eggs were cooked for 10 minutes, and are no longer cooking. The real indirect intention of the sentence might be, "The eggs are ready to eat" or "you should not use the eggs for baking".
With function 2, it indicates the eggs started boiling 10 minutes ago, and are still boiling now. The real indirect intention of the sentence might be, "It's time to stop boiling them".
It's worth noting that for this second function, present perfect continuous is much more natural and common:
The eggs have been boiling for 10 minutes