If the verb in the corresponding statement is a form of be, the verb in the question will be the same form of be:
He is/you are/I am here -> Is he/Are you/Am I here?
(For some speakers, the same can apply if the verb is have: You have a pen -> Have you a pen?. More common now is Do you have a pen?, treating "have" like a normal verb)
If the verb in the corresponding statement has any auxiliary (be, have or modals such as would, can_. will, use that auxiliary:
You are eating -> Are you eating? (be auxiliary for continuous constructions)
It was knocked down -> Was it knocked down? (be auxiliary for passive)
They have gone -> Have they gone? (have auxiliary for perfect construction)
You can/will/must go -> Can/will/must you go? (modal auxiliary)
For any other case (ie a verb without an auxiliary), you need do (in the right form for person and tense)
She went home -> Did she go home?
So for your examples:
This is work -> Is this work? (i.e. "Is this something that somebody does as their work?")
This works -> Does this work? (i.e. "Is this functioning correctly?")
She likes dinner -> Does she like dinner? (no auxiliary in the statement).