All answers here are more or less correct, but in the context of your question (you are learning english), the colloquialism of this phrase means knowing its meaning is not very useful to anyone learning English. In all honesty, as a native (American) English speaker, I would be able to tell from context what the meaning was, but I would still be kind of confused, and be wondering if it was referring to some sort of joke that referred to something before my time. If someone said this to me, I would respond with a confused look and a "what?" Ff the person laughed, indicating a joke, my response would be "I don't get it..."
Someone asking for change, at least in America, would usually just say, "can I get [some amount of cash] in quarters?" Possibly following with what they needed the change for (e.g. "Can I get a dollar in quarters for the parking meter outside?" or "Could you possibly give me change for a five? I need it for the laundry machines next door.")
If you needed some amount of coins in exchange for a larger denomination bill, you might say, "Excuse me, I need change for the parking meter... Here's a $20, can I get a ten, a five, a few singles, and the rest in quarters, please?"
With inflation, there really isn't a need for any coin smaller than a quarter (25 cents), in America nowadays. Laundry machines almost exclusively take quarters, and are some of the last things that anyone really would need coins for (and nowadays, many laundromats have machines that take credit/debit cards). The only other thing I can think of is a parking meter, although most major cities in the US have either retrofitted old parking meters to allow them to take credit/debit cards, or replaced them with some other sort of system. In Manhattan, last time I parked at a meter, it was $2.00/hour! Change holders fill up pretty fast at that cost, and meter maids are better dispatched to write tickets than be constantly emptying them.
Hope this helps!