In each case you would need to understand in context.
In the first example, the context strongly suggests that "40 days and nights" is "a total of 40 days, and each day's associated night". That is a total of 960 hours...
Likewise "40 plates of fish and chips" is 40 fish and 40 piles of chips.
On the other hand I might understand "40 coats and jackets" to mean a total of 40 items of clothing, each one is either a coat or a jacket. That's because "jacket" and "coat" are very similar types of things. However you should probably say "40 coats or jackets".
In the bottles example the sentence is ambiguous. The wider context might help understand. If a person was saying "There were 10 bottles of wine and liquor in the cupboard, and now there are only 3" It probably means "10 bottles of either wine or liquor, I'm not sure which because I didn't check".
On the other hand if someone says "I want you to bring 10 bottles of wine and liquor to the party" I would need to ask what they mean. That is not the usual way to speak.
As a learner you should try to avoid such ambiguities. You will rarely need to understand them, since native speakers will tend not to use an expression like "10 bottles of wine and liquor". But if you do need to understand an expression like this, you should be unafraid to ask what the speaker means.