Apress Edition

Prior to publishing this book now with Apress, I had released two earlier editions of the book. Having taken a Lean Startup approach (releasing versions as is when they were ready), I received feedback on each of those to make each successive version better. With the release of .NET Core 3.1 in November 2019, it seemed like the perfect time to release the second edition which was updated for that version of the framework, as well as some other updates, primarily a move to PostgreSQL as the backend Database.

I don't know what "having taken a Lean Startup approach" is saying at all. Would anyone explain it to me? Is there any difference between "have take" and "having taken" in terms of meaning when using them in a sentence? I will be grateful if anyone gives me some examples when explaining.

  • Do you know what 'Lean' means in a work or business context? Commented Apr 14, 2022 at 7:54
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    If it's having taken that puzzles you, it just means 'after I had taken' or 'because I had taken'. Commented Apr 14, 2022 at 8:30
  • @MichaelHarvey No I don't. Commented Apr 15, 2022 at 0:52
  • @stangdon Thanks, but I don't think this link has much to do with my question. Commented Apr 15, 2022 at 1:06
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    Yes, I suppose it does. If you 'take a certain approach' to something, you choose that method of dealing with it. Commented Apr 15, 2022 at 6:44

2 Answers 2


Consider the following sentence:

Taking a Lean Startup approach, I received feedback.

Let's analyze it[1]:

  • We can say that "taking" is a present participle and takes the direct object "a Lean Startup approach".
  • Because the phrase "taking a Lean Startup approach" is headed by a present participle, it may function adjectivally (i.e., modify a nominal.) We can then say that it modifies "I".

That is clear enough. However, this implies that the actions of the two verbs in this sentence ("taking" and "received") occurred at the same time. In order to indicate that the "taking" occurred earlier, we can put it into the perfect aspect (if you're unsure about how to form the perfect aspect, then I recommend researching that):

Having taken a Lean Startup approach, I received feedback.

We then have the basic structure of the original sentence.

[1] There are certainly other ways to analyze this sentence, and this way is somewhat simplified, but it's good enough for our purposes.


"Having taken a Lean Start Up approach..., I received feedback..."

The phrase "Having taken..." can be better understood as a separate sentence from the "I received..."

Quick note: "Lean Start Up" is a business process and, here, is applied as an adjective defining the type of approach.

Translation 1:

I took a Lean Start Up approach.

"I took..." is only slightly better than "Having taken..."

So, Translation 2:

I approached the problem using Lean Start Up methods.

Paragraph, therefore, might be better understood as:

I approached the problem using Lean Start Up methods.  I received feedback...

"I took [noun phrase}" or "Having taken [noun phrase]" can often be translated by converting the noun phrase to a verb. In the above, "Having taken [an approach]" can be translated by the verb "approached" as shown. Another example might "Having taken a break for lunch" could be converted to "I broke for lunch".

But sometimes you will need to supply the verb. For example, "Having taken a car to work" might be better translated as "I drove a car to work".

I hope that helps.

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