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Here is a piece of the text I'm writing now:

The region was populated by Indigenous Australians who managed to preserve their traditional crafts. They / Those / These included ceramics, leather making, and dying of fabrics.

What pronoun should I use to refer to the word "crafts" in the previous sentence?

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  • I think its "include" not "included"
    – DialFrost
    Commented Apr 20, 2022 at 14:20
  • Why? It's talking about the past - 'was populated'. Commented Apr 20, 2022 at 16:49

1 Answer 1

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The answer is

The region was populated by Indigenous Australians who managed to preserve their traditional crafts. These include ceramics, leather making, and dying of fabrics.

You cannot use "they", as the pronoun is supposed to refer to the "crafts", and "they" is referring to people. You also cannot use "those", as it is a plural version of "that", whereas "these" refer to items close by.

E.g.

We use this and these most commonly to point to things and people that are close to the speaker or writer, or things that are happening now

Therefore, in this context, you should use "these"

For more information of "this/these/that/those" go to this Cambridge dictionary

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    I agree with your answer in general, but they doesn't necessarily refer to people. You could say, for example, "There are five houses in the village; they are small and unpainted."
    – stangdon
    Commented Apr 20, 2022 at 14:45
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    They would be ambiguous because it could seem to refer to the indigenous Australians. These makes it clear that it means the last-mentioned thing - the crafts. Commented Apr 20, 2022 at 16:48
  • Part of your answer depends on what you mean by "close," but that meaning is entirely unclear. Australians and their crafts are equally close or distant to most of us—in my case, about 12,000 km. But that's not really what you mean, right? Commented Apr 21, 2022 at 16:49

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