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I have come across various constructs in English grammar/language like Noun,
adjective, adverb, verb, preposition, article,...How many are there in total
and do they have a special name like constructs, categories or meta-language, etc.

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    You are referring to the various parts of speech (POS). There is some small variation, but most grammars claim that (leaving aside the minor category of interjection) there are eight categories: noun, verb, adjective, determinative, adverb, preposition, coordinator and subordinator. Note that pronoun is a subclass of noun, and article is subclass of determinative.
    – BillJ
    Commented May 20, 2022 at 17:03

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We generally call these "parts of speech". Or at least, that's what they were called when I was in school.

Different sources give different counts. Some include sub-types that others don't, etc. I wouldn't worry about the exact number. For example, I just did a DuckDuckGo search on "parts of speech" and the first hit it gives is titled "The 9 Parts of Speech" https://www.thoughtco.com/part-of-speech-english-grammar-1691590 while the second is "The Eight Parts of Speech" https://butte.edu/departments/cas/tipsheets/grammar/parts_of_speech.html :-D The difference is that the first includes "articles/determiners" and the second does not.

But any list should have noun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, interjection, preposition, and maybe pronoun.

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