I found that the term 'medieval' has the meaning 'very old or old fashioned'
- Is it used negatively like 'out of style, inelegant, etc..
- What does the term 'positively medieval' mean??
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The word medieval can literally and directly refer to the approximately thousand year period of time between roughly the year 500 and the year 1500, particularly in Europe (although the word can sometimes be extended to indicate this period of time for other regions of the world as well, the primary meaning is this time period in Europe specifically). So if you are on a tour of Europe, and the tour guide says that "this is a medieval house" or "this is medieval architecture" or "this is a medieval painting" there is definitely no negative meaning implied. Quite the contrary, houses, architecture, and paintings from the medieval period can be quite beautiful
This period in European history has been highly romanticized. In particular, many popular Fairy Tales are typically considered to be set in medieval times... Snow White, Sleeping Beauty, and Cinderella in particular, although most everything from Grimm's could be said to be lumped together into this period. And these Fairy Tales have been highly sanitized by Disney, and evoke feelings of happiness, wonder, and magic. In this sense, the word medieval can be used in a very positive way!
Note the word "can".
The medieval period of European history is also known to have been one of intense violence, lack of sanitation, and cruelty. Horrific wars lasted decades at a time. Many people literally believed that bathing was unhealthy (winters were long, heated water was difficult to come by, and being wet makes you colder, which can be deadly). While castles were stone, many people had dirt flooring, or floors made of bundles of plants tied together. Human waste such as feces were not kept sufficiently distant from habitation, and might simply be tossed into the street. Punishment for crimes was arbitrary and horrific as well-- torture was frequently used. This was torture worse than almost anything done today... I will refrain from describing it, because it makes me sick.
The word medieval also carries these meanings, and these meanings are very, very, VERY bad. If you are living in "medieval conditions" it doesn't mean your house is like a fairy tale, it means your house is extremely filthy and probably lacks running water. If your schooling experience was "medieval" it doesn't mean it was full of wonder and fantasy, it means that your teachers beat their students and it was a terrifying experience. If you "get medieval" on someone, it means you are applying violence to that person.
None of these meanings actually indicate "out of style" or "inelegant". To the contrary, the positive meaning of medieval is very elegant. And the negative meaning of medieval is hardly as mild as "out of style"... the negative meaning actually invokes an extreme level of horror and violence. In particular, the kind of violence that has been, well, "out of style" for a very long time now.
As a final note, you asked what "positively" means. It doesn't mean that you intend the "positive" meaning of the word, it is simply used as an intensifier. You could replace the word with "very", "really", or "honestly" without changing the meaning much. "Positively medieval" is very often used with the negative sense of the word, and means that the situation being described is very, very, very bad.
"Positively" is just an intensifier, it doesn't mean "with positive sense" it means "very" or "absolutely":
She looked positively ugly dressed as a witch.
It doesn't mean "ugly" is a positive word. You might use this expression because normally is a beautiful girl so you are surprised by how ugly she looked. But you could also say "positively beautiful".
So "positively medieval" means "very surprisingly medieval": that is relating to the "Middle ages" between the end of the Roman Empire and the European renaissance. A period of beauty and elegance, but also violence and hardships.