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I am confused the meaning of the sentence "He abdicated the throne in favour of his son."
Does it mean "for his son" or "with the help of his son" or something else?
Here "in favour of" means "to be replaced by".
It's unclear whether the father actually did his son a favour by stepping down. All we know is that he resigned and his son assumed (or was to assume) his position.
"in favour of his son" is giving "favour" to his son.
"He abdicated the throne in favour of his son" can be read as "He abdicated the throne for the benefit of his son"