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"Yes," said Professor McGonagall. "And I don't suppose you're going to tell me why you're here, of all places?" "I've come to bring Harry to his aunt and uncle. They're the only family he has left now." (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone)

Do he has and left both modify the previous noun phrase, as an adjective clause and a participle, respectively?

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To be an adjective clause, it needs:

  • To contain a subject and a verb
  • To start with a relative pronoun, or a relative adverb
  • To function as adjective

If the sentence is "They're the only family that he has left now." then that he has left is an adjective clause.
I understand the sentence as saying they are the only family he still has. I would not say that left modifies they are the only family.

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