Is the short line in “Bo01 - City of Tomorrow” supposed to be a hyphen, en dash, or em dash?

Also, is the line following "2001" used correctly?

Malmö has long been renowned as a pioneer in eco-friendly living, so its latest innovation should perhaps come as no surprise. The city’s eco-drive is epitomized by “Bo01 - City of Tomorrow” — a project launched in 2001 that has transformed a polluted, defunct shipyard in the city into a green, sustainable living district.


1 Answer 1


An em-dash is typically used as a stand-in for a comma or parenthesis to separate out phrases—or even just a word—in a sentence for various reasons.

An en-dash is used to connect values in a range or that are related.

A hyphen is used to join words in a compound construction, or separate syllables of a word, like during a line break, or (self-evidently) a hyphenated name.

Source - ELU - When should I use an em-dash, en-dash and hyphen

So in this case, it is an em-dash.

And yes the second hyphen is used correctly, the "project launched in 2001" being the “Bo01 - City of Tomorrow”.

  • But if we remove "— a project launched in 2001 —" from the OP sentence, something seems wrong:
    – Apollyon
    Jul 1 at 5:57
  • It seems wrong but it is grammatically correct @Apollyon
    – DialFrost
    Jul 1 at 5:58
  • But that would produce a sentence where the proper name “Bo01 - City of Tomorrow” is modified by the restrictive clause "that has transformed a polluted, defunct shipyard..."
    – Apollyon
    Jul 1 at 6:02
  • Normally, proper names are modified by non-restrictive relative clauses.
    – Apollyon
    Jul 1 at 6:03
  • My bad it is a hyphen @Apollyon - caught me on that one :P
    – DialFrost
    Jul 1 at 6:06

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