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Mary: Hi Burt. How is it going with the new car?
Burt: Unfortunately, not too good.
Mary: Why? What happened?
Burt: My brand new car turned out to be a piece of junk.

Why isn't he just saying my car? why does he say my brand new car? what is the difference between saying my car , my new car and my brand new car?

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Brand-new means entirely new, that has not previously been used. See freedictionary, Webster, Macmillan.

A brand-new car is a car that's just been bought from the shop and is not supposed to have had previous owners.

A new car means the owner hasn’t had it for a long time, but it doesn't mean the car hasn't had any previous owners, it could be second-hand.

Saying "my car" doesn't give any indication on the age of the car. He could have had it for years.

Obviously the speaker isn't going very well, we can expect he is very cross because we don't expect a car we have just bought as new from the shop to be "a piece of junk", which means it's in bad condition, low quality.

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my car

can be any age car.

my new car

means it is new by comparison to other cars he may have.

my brand new car

means it is very new time-wise. My idea would be it is within a few months old.

Using brand new emphasizes the fact that new cars should not have defects, compared to older cars.

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