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I read from a book that "you and I" replaces "we" in a sentence, while "you and me" replaces "us".

Examples:

  1. The professor wants to see you and me [us].

  2. You and I [we] will go together.

Is this correct?

I was under the notion that "I" and "me" could be used interchangeably.

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    Even when both I and me can be used, I wouldn't call them interchangeable—there's often a difference of register. – snailcar Aug 21 '14 at 11:00
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This has to do with subject and objects in a sentence.

I see you

I is the subject and you is the object.

You see me

You is the subject and me is the object.

Subject pronouns - the one performing the action:

  • I
  • She
  • He
  • We

Object pronouns - the one receiving the action:

  • Me
  • Her
  • Him
  • Us
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Those sentences are correct.

I is used when the speaker is the agent of the verb.

I see the dog.

I am happy.

me is used when the speaker is the patient of the verb.

The dog sees me.

She gave me the book.

Edit:

As snailplane said in the comments, you would still use I when you make a passive sentence (you don't know or say who or what is doing the action).

I am being watched. (The dog is watching me.)

I was given the book. (She gave me the book.)

  • The forms are actually more closely aligned with syntactic roles than semantic. Consider passives: "I was given the book", not *"Me was given the book." – snailcar Aug 22 '14 at 8:14
  • @snailplane True. – Tory Aug 22 '14 at 13:20
  • I rolled back the edit. I don't think we should edit additional errors into other people's answers. – snailcar Sep 22 '14 at 19:40
  • @snailboat Though I did misspell "sentence". It doesn't help that in my dialect, it is pronounced /sɪntæns/. – Tory Sep 22 '14 at 21:19
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    The spelling isn't important to me and I wasn't trying to point it out. I was referring to what I wrote in my first comment: I and me correspond to syntactic roles rather than semantic. – snailcar Sep 23 '14 at 0:22

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