Let's look at the following sentence.

Working hard, Ram will definitely succeed.

I think the sentence could have two meanings.

  1. There is a condition that if Ram works hard , he will definitely succeed.
  2. Ram is someone who works hard and he will succeed.This is a reduced form. How it's reduced is here,

Ram, who works hard, will definitely succeed.

=Ram, working hard, will definitely succeed.

=Working hard, Ram will definitely succeed. (We often place the participle phrase at the beginning)

Is my concept correct? I'm so confused. Please help me out. If my explanation is correct, which meaning is to choose? 1 or 2 ?

  • 1
    It isn't a natural way to express either meaning. (1) If he works hard... (2) As he works hard... Jul 23, 2022 at 16:11
  • @KateBunting please answer in detail. Jul 23, 2022 at 16:25

1 Answer 1


Working hard, Ram will definitely succeed is not a very natural sentence because it is ambiguous.

To express your first meaning, you should say If he works hard, Ram will succeed.

To express your second meaning, you could say As/because/since he works hard, Ram will succeed.

  • And what about the reduction? Is the way of reducing the second sentence correct ? Jul 23, 2022 at 17:00
  • We often say " opening the door, he entered the room". Here one action occurs just after the other action and the time difference between them is very less. This is why I interpret the meaning of the sentence like the first one. Jul 23, 2022 at 17:03
  • @Sahil Laskar You have given us one sentence and two interpretations, but you are asking about the second sentence. As Kate Bunting said, your sentence isn't a natural way to express either of your meanings: we wouldn't usually say it. So I don't think it will be helpful to discuss its meanings. We do say "Opening the door, he entered the room". The meaning is clear. But "Opening the door, Ram will definitely enter" is awkward. It needs explaining. We would find a better way to say it. Jul 24, 2022 at 1:34
  • @KateBunting Are these two reductions grammatically correct? Do they make sense ? 1.My brother, who has called you, loves you. =My brother, having called you, loves you. =Having called you, my brother loves you. 2.My sister, who lives in Delhi, knows you. =My sister, living in Delhi,knows you. =Living in Delhi,my sister knows you. Please clear my confusion. Jul 24, 2022 at 7:00
  • They don't make sense because they imply (1) that the brother has started to feel love because of the telephone call, and (2) that the sister knows the person because she lives in Delhi. (You could possibly say Living in Delhi, my sister may have met you, but it would be more natural to say As she lives in Delhi...) Jul 24, 2022 at 7:12

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