It depends on which of the rather different meanings of remember you intend.
Do you remember your homework? normally means something like "Can you bring to mind the content of your homework, or what you wrote in your homework?", and suggests that we are discuss what your homework was about, or required you to do.
Did you remember your homework? normally means "Did you remember to bring your homework home?" or "Did you remember to do your homework?" - about what you did, not about the content of the homework.
I'll expand on this a little. With most verbs, we use do you ... ? only in a habitual sense. One exception is verbs of perception and inner state: do you think, do you see, do you feel. Thus, unless there is a context which makes a habitual reading plausible. do you remember ...? is asking about your inner perception, and hence about whether you remember facts or an experience.
Did you remember could also have that meaning, but would be talking about a past time - whether at that time you remembered (facts or experiences).
But remember in the sense of remember to do something is not a verb of perception or experience.