In particular, the rights provided for under Arts 8, 9, 10 and 11 are subject to legal restrictions such as ♦ are:

. . . necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety

  1. Shouldn't there be pronouns at ♦ (my own addition), like "those that"? If not, how and why not?

  2. Are there any grammatical terms that describe the issues here?

Source: p 47, The English Legal System 2012-2013, Gary Slapper


The insertion you suggest could be helpful but here it is implied. I think it is the style adopted by Gary Slapper, perhaps related to the ways lawyers write and/or speak. In any case, it is not misleading and it is shorter, so to be commended!

  • I think that you're correct that this construction is specific to legal writing. Pronouns could be ambiguous, so I think legalese avoids them. – ColleenV Nov 26 '14 at 13:46

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