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  1. The spokesman explained to the press why the president didn't show up.
  1. He often shares with us information about environmental protection.
  1. She found it difficult to get along with her roommates.

2 Answers 2

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The first sentence is an embedded question complement clause why the president didn't show up, the direct object of explain. The complement clause had been placed after the indirect object to the press but I would be hesitant to call it Extraposition -- the DO and the IO have to both appear, and they can appear in either order if prepositions are retained, so the usual thing is to put the longer one last. That's the result of extraposition and left dislocation and lots of other syntactic rules -- they put long complex constituents at the end of the sentence so your parser can chew on them at leisure.

The second sentence is much the same, and works the same way. The with us phrase is effectively an IO, since it represents the Receiver of the information in the DO, and it's much shorter than the DO phrase, so it goes first.

The third sentence, however, is a case of Extraposition, but not on the main clause.

  • She found it difficult to get along with her roommates.

That dummy it marks extraposition. Note that it's not the subject of the main clause, though. It's in a subordinate clause, that's been modified as the object of She found. If we just put back all the deleted parts, we get

  • She found it (to be) difficult (for her) to get along with her roommates.

The to be is because find requires an infinitive complement clause; it's been deleted because it's meaningless and predictable, like for her, but it can be put back in without changing any meaning. Going one step further back and unwinding extraposition gives us

  • She found [[(for her) to get along with her roommates] (to be) difficult].

which is complicated and hard to follow, and that's why it's extraposed. For her to get along with her roomates, an infinitive clause, is the subject of the infinitive to be difficult. So delete the for her and the to be, then do extraposition of to get along with her roommates to the end, leaving it behind to fool us into thinking there's a subject there.

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Extraposition is the rightward movement of a subject-clause to a terminal position, usually utilizing "it" as a placeholder at the beginning of the sentence.

I'm unsure exactly what you mean by "relating to extraposition," but it doesn't appear any of your 3 examples are extraposed as they are all standard SVO.

Reference https://www.thoughtco.com/extraposition-grammar-term-1690626

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