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1-) The initial event is removal of an electron from the hydrogen atom, thus converting it to a hydrogen ion.

2-) She forgot to tie her shoes, thereby or thus tripping and falling down the stairs.

3-) He knocked over the red wine, thereby ruining the table cloth.

4-) Regular exercise strengthens the heart, thereby reducing the risk of heart attack.

Hello. I found a few examples to explain the issue. I come across such phrases very often. I understand, but I couldn't grasp the logic. also i couldn't find any book that explains this topic in detail I usually think of these sentences as :

2-) She forgot to tie her shoes thereby she tripped and falled down the stairs.

1-) The initial event is removal of an electron from the hydrogen atom, thus initial event converts it to a hydrogen ion.

Is it true ? However, How can I interpret this sentence :

4-) Regular exercise strengthens the heart, thereby reducing the risk of heart attack.???

Regular exercise strengthens the heart, thereby it reduces the risk of heart attack.

it = regular exercise or regular exercise strengthens the heart so whole sentence ?

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    I don't think (1) is a good example of the use of thus. The words thus and thereby ideally should modify verbs and not nouns, so (1) would be more grammatical if it read "Initially, an electron is removed from the hydrogen atom, thus converting it to a hydrogen ion." Sep 29, 2022 at 12:42
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    I wouldn't use either thus or thereby in sentence 2. Leaving her shoelaces undone wasn't a means of falling downstairs - the fall was an unintended result. I would say as a result of which she tripped and fell downstairs. Sep 29, 2022 at 13:45
  • @PeterShor thus converting... is a gerund phrase or a participle phrase: both are modified by adverbs.
    – user81561
    Sep 29, 2022 at 15:24
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    @Greybeard: Yes, but I think the point is what does the thus converting... clause modify? Usually it would modify a description of an action ("X did Y, thus converting...") but that's not present here, which is what makes that example awkward at best.
    – psmears
    Sep 29, 2022 at 15:36
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    Are you translating from English or to English? If from English, why not give some real-world examples? If to English, why do you think you need to use "thus" and "thereby" at all?
    – gotube
    Sep 29, 2022 at 16:15

1 Answer 1

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Thus (Wiktionary) (manner) In this way or manner.

If you throw the ball thus, as I’m showing you, you’ll have better luck hitting the target.

(conjunctive) As a result.

I have all the tools I need; thus, I will be able to fix the car without having to call a mechanic.

Therefore (Wiktionary) (conjunctive) Consequently, by or in consequence of that or this cause; referring to something previously stated.

Traditional values will always have a place. Therefore, they will never lose relevance.

(conjunctive, archaic) for that; for it (in reference to a previous statement)

Behold, we have forsaken all, and followed thee; what shall we have therefore?

Thereby (Wiktionary) (formal) By it; by that; by that means, or as a consequence of that.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

In some sentences all three can be used interchangeably. In some sentences not.

If we are to use some other phrases in places of thus, therefore, thereby, these are the phrases we are likely to use.

Thus: In this way; for that reason.
Therefore: For that reason.
Thereby: As a result; by it; by that.

Do the exercise and kindly let us know in the form of an answer, which of these three thus, therefore, thereby you found most suitable for each sentence?

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