If a couple get married shortly after they met each other and get divorced not long after their marriage. What do you call their marriage? Or how do you describe this situation?
Both "short marriage" and "quick marriage" work, but "quick marriage" is more often used to mean a short wedding ceremony, or getting married with a very short engagement period, so a sentence like, "Marsha and John had a quick marriage" could mean three different things, depending on the context.
A "short marriage", however, only has one meaning, which is that the time between the wedding and the divorce was short.
It can be ambiguous to talk about the length of the marriage, because that can be interpreted as the length of the marriage ceremony.
However, you could say that the couple were married for a short time. That's clear that you're talking about the period from marriage to divorce (as that's when they are no longer married).
Alternatively, using an adverb - they married briefly (but not "quickly", as that could mean soon after meeting). Or not mention the marriage, but imply it, by saying they were soon divorced.
A US-specific term may be Hollywood marriage or celebrity marriage.
The term has grown to also have strong negative connotations of a marriage that is of short duration and quickly ends in separation or divorce. The term developed the negative connotations fairly early; by the 1930s, a "Hollywood marriage" was a marriage both glamorous and short-lived.
I would call that a whirlwind marriage.
I'd just say the marriage was "short". A "quick" marriage is one with a short betrothal or a short ceremony. "John met Sarah and two days later they went to Vegas for a quick marriage".
Of course there could be some specific context to this, depending on the reason for getting divorced soon after marriage.
Alternatively you could use the actual length of the marriage. "John's short, five-day marriage ended in annulment..."