Take this money and buy some bandages in the shop.
Here in the shop — acts as a adjective or adverb.
Because in the shop indicates place, it also modifies bandages so it can be adjective-like. So plz explain the grammar rule if any?
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In your sentence, the phrase "in the shop" only modifies "buy", not "bandages".
But let's change the sentence a bit:
Take this money and buy the bandages in the shop.
This new sentence is ambiguous, and could either mean to go into the shop and buy the bandages, or it could mean to buy "the bandages which are in the shop". In that second case, "in the shop" is a reduced relative clause that modifies "bandages" like an adjective.
This is not the case in your original sentence, however, because "some bandages" means we're not specifying which bandages. This means we know that "in the shop" is not a reduced relative clause, so it only modifies "buy", not bandages.