For example, from https://www.worddy.co/en/list-of-irregular-verbs-english:

Infinitive Past simple Past participle
bear bore borne / born
get got gotten / got

Are borne and born the same? Can I use both of them in any situation? Using the get example, I know that got is used for British English unlike gotten which is used for American English.

P.S. Irregular verbs are an important part of English grammar. I need

  1. a valid list of irregular verbs and
  2. an explanation about all cases of slash (/) pairs.

Who is native speaker of English? Please help me with that.

  • There are some real howlers on that web page, like beared. It's not a good source. Nov 17, 2022 at 22:48
  • I'd recommend using neither, as it's rather old fashioned. Unless you are deliberately aiming for an archaic effect, in which case, use whichever sounds odder. Out of curiosity, are you using it to mean lived/resided or some other sense?
    – Stuart F
    Nov 18, 2022 at 0:11
  • The Dude abode.
    – gotube
    Nov 18, 2022 at 2:19
  • part 1 seems completed in the edited question. You already have a list of irregular verbs.
    – James K
    Nov 19, 2022 at 10:24
  • Be careful about the word "native". It does not mean "native speaker of English"
    – James K
    Nov 19, 2022 at 10:26

2 Answers 2


To avoid this becoming a list, lets look at general patterns.

Firstly, where a regular and irregular form are both possible, ("learned/learnt") British English tends to use the irregular and American English tends to use the regular. But both forms are understood.

The irregular (or -en) form of the participle is more likely to be used attributively: "Burnt toast" but "The toast was burned by the cook". "The sunken boat"/"The boat has sunk".

The irregular form is more likely in archaic forms "Robin Hood was clad in Lincoln Green" and the regular is more likely in modern English "He was clothed in a sweatshirt and jeans".

Generally, advice for learners is Use the regular form, except when you know the irregular form is better. The guidelines above suggest some situations when the irregular form is better, and you can naturally learn the rare exceptions as needed. Using the regular form does not affect understanding, and using the regular form is within the natural variation between native speakers of English in different situations.

The number of cases where you choose between two irregular forms of the past tense is much fewer:

  • was/were - a difference of grammatical number
  • begat/begot - Obsolete word, both equally rare.
  • bid/bade - bade is the older form
  • chid/chode - Obsolete word, both equally rare.
  • sank/sunk - debatable, I say only "sank" is the correct past tense

and for past participles

  • born/borne - Use "born" for the adjective related to giving birth. Use borne otherwise.
  • got/gotten - British/American use, though more complex and there are other questions about this pair in particular.
  • sunk/sunken - as above, use "sunken" as the adjective form.

That seems to be all

  • While I generally agree with your first paragraph, there are two common counter-examples: dive (dove is American only. Not sure what Americans use for the pp); sneak (snuck is American, though becoming more common in the UK).
    – Colin Fine
    Nov 19, 2022 at 16:48
  • 1
    Agree, and there are exceptions and edge cases. The general principle should be "if both regular and irregular forms exist, use the regular unless you know otherwise". In the case of "dove", this is a verb that is traditionally weak, and has developed a strong past tense recently (1800s), perhaps by analogy "drive/drove"
    – James K
    Nov 19, 2022 at 16:49
  • What does mean (or -en)? Nov 20, 2022 at 17:35
  • Many past participles, if they are not regular -ed participles, end in -en (examples include "eaten" "ridden", "seen" This form is so common that some consider it to be "regular -en past participle"; But here I'm saying that the "-en" participle is more likely to be used attributively "sunken treasure" whereas the strong participle is more likely to be used to for perfect "it has sunk".
    – James K
    Nov 20, 2022 at 17:58

Abode as the simple past and the past participle was last used seriously in about 1750 - you can consider it obsolete.

"I have gotten" is American English and is particularly used in the sense of "to obtain"; British English = I have got (gotten is not used).

To see the frequency of English words in written English, Google Ngrams is helpful. You should enter a short phrase that includes your word.

I will add to the warning that Andrew Leach gave: The webpage that you have linked to is completely unreliable.

  • I have changed my question as you want. Nov 18, 2022 at 14:41
  • I did not want you to do anything... I suggested that you use Google Ngrams. An alternative is an online dictionary. The past participle of "to bear" in the sense of to carry, is borne: "born" has not been used since the 18th century.
    – user81561
    Nov 18, 2022 at 15:11
  • Irregular verbs are an important part of English grammar. I need a valid list of irregular verbs and an explanation about all cases of slash (/) pairs. Are you native? Can you help me with that? Nov 19, 2022 at 9:38
  • gotten is used wherever got is used in British English: It can mean receive, bought, buy and obtain, among others. Ngrams has zero, really, to do with spoken English.
    – Lambie
    Nov 19, 2022 at 20:27

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