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Here's the sentence I'm asking about:

I sat trapped in my seat, my false smile stretched so tight that I lost all feeling in the lower half of my face

If I were to write the same sentence, it would be:

I sat trapped in my seat and my false smile was stretched so tight that I lost all feeling in the lower half of my face

I understand that the first sentence is grammatically correct because I often see the same structure in lots of novels.

So my question is: Is there a name for this structure? Or is it just a matter of personal style?

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I (and I believe most readers) would not immediately infer that your original sentence had the structure of the second. (Native English speakers usually would not omit either "and" or "was" in that situation.) Instead, the second part of your original sentence (the part after the comma) would more likely be interpreted as a nominative absolute. You can search this site for that term (or the "absolute-construction" tag) to find several related discussions.

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