There are various terms with different connotations:
Color/colour is material added to an article or story to give a bit more atmosphere or entertainment value that isn't specifically relevant to the story. The phrase "local color" is similar. Color is generally considered a good thing, at least in moderation.
Bullshit is meaningless material inserted to confuse people, often to get them to buy what you're selling or otherwise influence them improperly. There are many other similar terms for marketing material (bumf, FUD, etc). It is invariably a negative/critical term, and is sometimes considered vulgar, but thanks to the writer Harry Frankfurt has become a term of art in philosophy and the study of language.
Trivia is a more neutral term. Trivia refers to things of minor importance, often in the context of random facts that aren't useful but win you prizes in quizzes; unlike many of the words I give, it specifically refers to facts rather than expression (language or words).
Padding is content added to get something up to a word limit, for instance if you are told to write a 2000 word essay but find you only know enough for 800 words, so you add irrelevant material and repeat yourself. The verb waffle is also used (mainly in British English), and sometimes is found as a noun; see also blather and synonyms.