Is ‘I took (out) (a) credit from the bank’ literally according to the definition, or your interpretation, or are you saying there is no difference?
Both credit and loan can be either nouns or verbs. Do you mind which we’re looking at here?
When they’re nouns, credit and loan can both be countable, or uncountable. Does that matter here?
Credit is ‘what you borrow from a bank’ only in the tightly restricted sense of ‘I used £XX credit.’ Can you doubt that?
Otherwise credit is not what you actually borrow, but how much you might be able to borrow… as, for instance ‘I have £50,000 credit so I can ask the bank for a loan up to that amount.’
That ‘The bank refused further credit to the company’ does mean ‘the bank refused further loans…’ but the senses are too different. They are so far apart, we might be comparing ‘eating’ and ’food’ or ‘distance’ and ‘travel’ or ‘age’ and ‘time.’