"As a verb" would mean that "database" is the object of the verb.
Before modifying any tables shut down the database.
If on the other hand, you mean a database of shutdowns (perhaps list of each time a system is shut down) you can use an attributive noun.
Attributive nouns are a little like adjectives. The precede a noun to modify it. Examples might be "chicken soup" or "golf course". The nouns "chicken" and "golf" describe the type of soup or course. But "golf" isn't an adjective (you couldn't say "*this course is very golf") Clearly not every word that is used to describe a noun is an adjective.
"Shutdown" is therefore a noun in the phrase "shutdown database" and, as per the style guide, should be written as one word.
If, however you mean a database that is offline at the moment, you should say "an offline database".