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a. I do not believe that anything he says is true.

Isn't that sentence ambiguous?

First meaning: I believe that nothing he says is true.

Second meaning: I do not believe that just anything he says is true. Some are and some are not.

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    Third meaning: I do not believe anything that he says is true -- but I just might believe it if he says something is false! :D May 20, 2023 at 2:27
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    Many things in language are ambiguous. That's why they have to be put in context.
    – ralph.m
    May 20, 2023 at 3:46

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In order to give the second meaning you would need to "everything" and not "anything".

In any context that I can think of, the first meaning is understood. I don't find this sentence very ambiguous.

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    Or maybe to give the second meaning, you might say: "I do not believe that just anything he says is true." This sounds kind of stilted though, so your version with "everything" is a lot more natural May 20, 2023 at 16:44

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