In this following context, how should I understand the words 'hence' and 'also'?

What does the word 'hence' refer to here?

How should I take this bold and italic part?


Here you will again remember that all the mental phenomena in one and the same state of consciousness, hence also impression (phassa) and feeling (vedanå), are necessarily dependent one upon another by their simultaneous arising, their presence, their association, etc.

Source: P. 36 "Fundamentals of Buddhism" by Nyanatiloka Mahåthera

  • Have you looked up "hence" in a dictionary? What definitions did you find? Which ones look like they fit here? What exactly are you unsure about?
    – gotube
    Jun 10, 2023 at 1:26
  • It's not very well written. Better editing would be something like "mental phenomena in one and the same state of consciousness — including impression (phassa) and feeling (vedanå) — are necessarily …"
    – ralph.m
    Jun 10, 2023 at 2:09
  • I think the author was trying to say that, because this relates to "all mental phenomena", it therefore (hence) also includes impression (phassa) and feeling (vedanå).
    – ralph.m
    Jun 10, 2023 at 2:11
  • 1
    Thanks @ralph.m.
    – Sakya Kim
    Jun 10, 2023 at 5:05


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