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1. (a) Statement       - There is a man with him.  
   (b) Question        - Who is there with him?  (a man)  
   (c) Noun clause     - who there is with him

2. (a) Statement       - The man is with him.  
   (b) question        - Who is with him?  (The man)  
   (c) Noun clause     - who is with him

My questions:

  1. Are there any significant differences between 1.(b)/(c) and 2.(b)/(c) ?
  2. Are the questions and noun clauses here correct?
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    I don't want to digress into Existential 'there', which is not the main point of your question here. However, I'd like to point out that both interpretations are possible; choosing which one would depend on context. When "there" refers to a place, 1c is better phrased as "who is there with him" (or possibly "who is with him there"). When "there" is used existentially, I'd say it's better to phrase 1c as simply, "who is with him". Sep 19 '14 at 12:27
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I answered this in ELU but... In the general context there is no real difference between 1B and 2B or 1C and 2C. Although they are all correct, the noun clause 1C is more 'clunky' than the noun clause 2C. I hope this helps.

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