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Here is the sentence:

Scientists from the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program VDAP — part of the U.S. Geological Survey and based at the U.S. Geological Survey’s Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington — are always on call, ready when summoned to rush at a moment’s notice to an awakening volcano anywhere in the world; ...

If the structure "scientists are alway on call" is "subject+linking verb+predicative", what element does ", ready when summoned to rush" serve? Does it serve as a juxtaposed predicative as "on call" does or something else (like a complement).

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  • It's usually used of two noun phrases but I'd say are always on call and [are always] ready when summoned are two verb phrases (the second with a "deleted" element) are in apposition (the second verb phrase repeats and clarifies the first one). It would be just the same with a shorter subject: I am always on call, ready to respond if needed. Aug 13, 2023 at 11:50
  • @FumbleFingers thanks!
    – Chase_777
    Aug 20, 2023 at 16:06

1 Answer 1

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In this parallel structure, you should understand that

Scientists ... are... ready ... to rush ... to an awakening volcano...

The subject and linking verb are provided by the parallel clause.

The infinitive is a complement to the adjective "ready", it completes its meaning. The phrase "when summoned" is rather parenthetical, and adverbial, it gives the conditions that they rush, but it isn't fixed in the clause structure and could be moved or removed. The final elements of the sentence are part of the subordinate clause headed by rush.

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  • Thanks, it helps!
    – Chase_777
    Aug 20, 2023 at 16:06

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