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Example 1

I am sick right now because of having drunk too much.

Example 2

I am sick right now because of drinking too much last week.

Example 3

I am sick right now because of (having) drunk too much last week.

My understanding is that if the action after the preposition happened significantly earlier than the main verb, you can add the time adverb or just use present perfect. And example 3 I think the present perfect is optional because the time adverb is there to indicate the time.

And I think if the event just happened slightly earlier it doesn't need a present perfect to tell the time difference.

Is my understanding correct?

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'Drunk' is the past participle (following the auxiliary "to have").

'Drinking' is the present continuous form of the verb. If you simply said "I'm sick because of drinking too much" that could mean you're still drinking too much! But you are specifying a period of time in your examples - "last week" - which puts them all firmly in the past, so there is really no discernible difference.

You could also use the past participle 'drank' as in "I'm sick because I drank too much last week".

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