The hurricane caused damage ......... at $300 million.
What I have chosen: is estimated
The answer should have been: estimated
Is estimated adjective, what type of adjective, or what parts of speech would be the case?
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"is estimated" would form a passive voice sentence, but what then would be the subject. The parts before "The hurricane caused damage" already has a finite verb.
If you use "is estimated" you get an expression with two main verbs.
Instead the (past/passive) participle "estimated" does fit in the gap.
The sentence fragment you give: The hurricane caused damage... has a subject (The hurricane) and a verb (caused) and an object (damage).
If you add a single hyphen: The hurricane-caused damage... changes the phrasing to a single subject (damage) and an adjective (hurricane-caused).
This might be what lead you to is estimated instead of the correct estimated answer.