If yes, how not to confuse a prepositional phrase as an object complement and as an adverb. E.g "I consider you as a friend". Is "as a friend" an adverb implying "I'm your friend and I consider you from this position" Or an object complement meaning "I consider you my friend". Does the accurate meaning depend on a context?


1 Answer 1


The latter.

I consider you as a friend.

It's not the whole preposition phrase "as a friend" that is predicative complement of "consider", but just the noun phrase "a friend".

"A friend" can be analysed as a 'predicative oblique' because it is complement of a preposition instead of being related directly to the verb.

Note that some grammars call the "as phrase" itself a 'marked predicative complement'.

  • 1
    It's also possible to have a PP (preposition phrase) functioning as predicative complement where it has a clause as predicand. For example "He considers taking advice beneath his dignity", where the sub clause "taking advice" is predicand for the the predicative complement PP "beneath his dignity". If this is of interest to you, I'll add it to my answer.
    – BillJ
    Oct 6, 2023 at 7:28
  • Can " as a friend " be considered as an adverb? Oct 6, 2023 at 8:04
  • @PetroProbka You mean adverbial. No: "consider" requires an obligatory complement, but adverbials are always optional. As I said in my answer, the PP may be considered a 'marked predicative complement'.
    – BillJ
    Oct 6, 2023 at 8:12
  • It's not predicative 100% it doesn't follow an auxiliary verb. Consider - predicate, you- object, as a friend - adverb or object complement Oct 6, 2023 at 10:24
  • @PetroProbka Not all predicatives follow an auxiliary verb. Consider "He seemed a nice guy" / "She felt lonely", both predicative but no auxiliary verb in sight. "Consider" also takes PCs, as seen in your example. I've already told you that there is no adverbial in your example. And I've already explained that "a friend" is predicative complement of "consider"
    – BillJ
    Oct 6, 2023 at 12:11

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