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There are many sentences like these:

  1. As this brief outline indicates, from the point of view of reporting structures, the reader of a news story expects to find 'important' or 'ordinary' people as speakers giving their account of events and their opinions on them.

  2. As will be demonstrated in Chapter 8, the subject of a clause plays an important role; nonetheless, in a given clause the verb controls the subject noun too.

Some say 'as' has the part of speech of 'pronoun', so it can function like 'which'.

But, in most of the main dictionaries, there is not any item with a 'pronoun' interpretation. So,can we think that the subject or object is omitted in the sentence?

  1. As this brief outline indicates [the idea], from the point of view of reporting structures, the reader of a news story expects to find 'important' or 'ordinary' people as speakers giving their account of events and their opinions on them.

  2. As [it] will be demonstrated in Chapter 8, the subject of a clause plays an important role; nonetheless, in a given clause the verb controls the subject noun too.

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  • "As" is here a preposition introducing that preposition phrase "as this brief outline indicates", which is functioning as an adjunct. of comparison.
    – BillJ
    Commented Oct 7, 2023 at 7:05
  • @BillJ What is the object of 'indicates'?
    – Mr. Wang
    Commented Oct 7, 2023 at 7:38
  • The clausal complement of "indicates" is recoverable from the matrix, in this case the clause the reader of a news story expects to find 'important' or 'ordinary' people as speakers giving their account of events and their opinions on them.
    – BillJ
    Commented Oct 7, 2023 at 8:19
  • @BillJ So, a pronoun referring to 'the reader...on them' is omitted,right ?
    – Mr. Wang
    Commented Oct 7, 2023 at 8:29
  • Yes, the comparative clauses functioning as complement to "as" are structurally incomplete.
    – BillJ
    Commented Oct 7, 2023 at 8:30

2 Answers 2

2

[1] [As this brief outline indicates ___ ] , from the point of view of reporting structures, the reader of a news story expects to find 'important' or 'ordinary' people as speakers giving their account of events and their opinions on them.

[2] [As ___ will be demonstrated in Chapter 8], the subject of a clause plays an important role] ...

In both examples, the comparative clauses functioning as complement to the preposition "as" are structurally incomplete in that the clausal complements which their verbs would have in main clauses are missing.

The clausal complement of "indicates" and "will" are recoverable from the matrix.

In [1] what is indicated is that the reader of a news story expects to find 'important' or 'ordinary' people as speakers giving their account of events and their opinions on them.

And in [2] what will be demonstrated in Ch.8 is that the subject of a clause plays an important role.

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  • Why do you insist that 'as' is a preposition, not a conjunction?
    – Mr. Wang
    Commented Oct 7, 2023 at 14:06
  • In modern grammar "as" is a preposition in examples like yours. This dictionary is up-to-date link.
    – BillJ
    Commented Oct 7, 2023 at 15:48
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as is a conjunction here as described in CambridgeDictionary.

As as a conjunction We also use as to mean ‘in the way that’: As the forecast predicted, the weather was dreadful for the whole of the weekend.

Your examples hence could be read as

In the way that this brief outline indicates, from the point of view of reporting structures, the reader of a news story expects to find ...

In the way that will be demonstrated in Chapter 8, the subject of a clause plays an important role ...

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  • In 'In the way that', which part of the speech is 'that'? And also,in oxfordlearnersdictionaries, 'as' is defined as 'in the way in which'. So, is 'that' in 'In the way that' the same as 'in which'?
    – Mr. Wang
    Commented Oct 7, 2023 at 5:21
  • @Mr.Wang "That" is a relative pronoun in this context, and it can be replaced by "which", which is also a relative pronoun. "In the way that" is roughly the same as "In the way which". "In which" is not equivalent to either. "In which this brief outline indicates, ..." is nonsensical.
    – gotube
    Commented Oct 7, 2023 at 5:51
  • @gotube It is confusing. In oxfordlearnersdictionaries ,'as' is defined as 'in the way in which' in 'Leave the papers as they are.' ,but defined as 'in the way that' in ' We’d better leave things as they are until the police arrive.' in LongMan
    – Mr. Wang
    Commented Oct 7, 2023 at 6:23
  • 2
    No. "as" is not a conjunction; it's a preposition. And "that" is not a relative pronoun; it's a subordinator (your conjunction) that introduces certain relative clauses, and declarative content clauses.
    – BillJ
    Commented Oct 7, 2023 at 6:58
  • "As" is here a preposition introducing that preposition phrase "as this brief outline indicates", functioning as an adjunct of comparison.
    – BillJ
    Commented Oct 7, 2023 at 7:07

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