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Pls kindly explain why we use "a" article in the sentences like "He has a personal fortune of 1 billion", "a temperature of around 19 degrees"etc

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    "a temperature of around 19 degrees" isn't a sentence; the article varies depending on context. Although it should be obvious that it's expressing a vague thing not a specific temperature.
    – Stuart F
    Feb 2 at 10:00
  • He has a cat / He has a personal fortune of 1 billion //// She, on the other hand, has a dog / She has a personal fortune of 2 billion. They're examples of individual pets, measures of wealth, so indefinite until spelled out. 'A temperature of around 19 degrees' (as opposed to one of say 32 degrees) likewise (this is arguably a count usage). Feb 2 at 12:37

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Short answer - because they are countable nouns. There can be many fortunes. When 'temperature' refers to an individual reading, there can be many of them. Countable nouns need a determiner, such as an article. If you look up 'temperature' in a dictionary you'll see that most if not all of the examples use articles.

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