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I'm trying to understand the grammatical role of a phrase in a sentence. The sentence in question is:

"And all without the government having to spend any money up-front, which is amazing."

In this sentence, what grammatical function does "having to spend any money up-front" serve? It may work as a gerund phrase or the object in a prepositional phrase, but I'm unsure about its specific role. Is it acting as an adverbial modifier, or does it serve another purpose?

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    Its function is that of predicate in the gerund-participial clause "the government having to spend any money up-front".
    – BillJ
    Apr 19 at 6:43

1 Answer 1

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And all without the government having to spend any money up-front, which is amazing.

I add to what @BillJ said.

The gerund-participle phrase is the predicate of the nonfinite clause:

the government having to spend any money up-front

The nonfinite clause is the object of preposition without.

A similar example is found in sense 4 definition of without

​4 not doing the action mentioned

without somebody doing something The party was organized without her knowing anything about it.

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  • Very clear. Thanks a lot for your help!
    – kokomi
    Apr 20 at 6:17

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