There are some interesting lexical problems in translating this French expression.
First, we do not use the word learning to signify an instance of learning something. Although the verb learn is aspectually an 'accomplishment', acquisition of new knowledge or a new skill, the gerund is used to denote either the 'activity', the process of learning, or a very abstract property acquired by the learner, that of being learnéd.
(If the technical terms 'accomplishment' and 'activity' are not familiar to you there is a brief introduction at our aspect tag-wiki.)
Consequently, the gerund acts as a non-count noun: we do not speak of a learning or of learnings. (Google does report a very few instances of these in pedagogical literature; but these occur in contexts which do not suggest that their authors possess any great literary skill.) I know of no standard term for a single instance of acquiring new knowledge; you might get away with an apprehension or an appropriation as the equivalent of un apprentissage, but you would have to be careful to define it beforehand, or use it in a context in which the meaning was clear.
Instinct has somewhat different constraints. In English, unlike French, generalities and abstractions are usually expressed without an article. We speak of human faculties or capabilities as bare instinct, intelligence, sentiment, power, and use an article only when such a capability is directed toward a specific object: an instinct for self-preservation, the power to resist.
Finally, I can think of no preposition which by itself expresses that one entity has ascendancy over another. We really need a verb or verb derivative for that: learning's mastery of instinct, the defeat of instinct by learning.
So I don't believe there's any hope of retaining the structure of the French expression. The closest I can come to what (I think) you are trying to express is something much wordier, like:
... an instance of achieving learning in the face of instinctual resistance ...
Your specification of what is learned makes it possible to express this somewhat less clunkily:
Tolerance must be learned; and to learn tolerance, instinct must be overcome.
Tolerance is acquired by overcoming instinct.
Tolerance runs counter to our instincts: it must be learned, and instinct overcome.