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She threw a sharp, sideways glance at Dumbledore here, as though hoping he was going to tell her something, but he didn't, so she went on. "A fine thing it would be if, on the very day You-Know-Who seems to have disappeared at last, the Muggles found out about us all. I suppose he really has gone, Dumbledore?" "It certainly seems so," said Dumbledore. "We have much to be thankful for. Would you care for a lemon drop?" (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone)

Is much implying ‘a great thing’ and indicating the previous ‘he really has gone’?

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No. In this case the word much simply means a lot of things or a lot of events

The following sentences are semantically equivalent:

"It certainly seems so," said Dumbledore. "We have much to be thankful for. Would you care for a lemon drop?"

"It certainly seems so," said Dumbledore. "We have a lot of things to be thankful for. Would you care for a lemon drop?"

"It certainly seems so," said Dumbledore. "We [should] be thankful for the many [fortunate] [events/things/people] [in our lives]. Would you care for a lemon drop?"

In both cases, Dumbledore is saying that there are many things (in life) that we should be grateful for, and hence that Harry Potter should in this case not dwell on the unfortunate things in life, since there are many fortunate events that he is overlooking.

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