I heard this expression in the Rihanna's eponymic song.
I understand the general meaning, but where does it come from? What is the image behind?
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After a show (such a play, or musical performance) it is common for the artists to "take a bow" which gives the audience the opportunity to show their appreciation through applause:
In this case, "take a bow" is being used sarcastically by Rihanna because she is implying that the subject of the song is "putting on a performance" i.e. being insincere, and Rihanna is implying that he should stop acting and should "take a bow" after his "performance".